中国 乞巧 女儿节 —— Qiqiao: Chinese Girls’ Festival-中国报道-加拿大阳光智惠国际俱乐部 - Powered by Discuz!

中国 乞巧 女儿节 —— Qiqiao: Chinese Girls’ Festival

2015-7-18 10:43| 发布者: admin| 查看: 3277| 评论: 0|原作者: 甘肃省 陇南市

摘要: 美丽的小城---西和县在中国版图的中心地带甘肃省的东南部。这里虽然和闻名世界的敦煌莫高窟同处一个省份,但风光和西部千里大漠迥然不同。这里山清水秀、气候温和,被誉为“陇上江南”。

  美丽的小城---西和县在中国版图的中心地带甘肃省的东南部。这里虽然和闻名世界的敦煌莫高窟同处一个省份,但风光和西部千里大漠迥然不同。这里山清水秀、气候温和,被誉为“陇上江南”。西和县地处长江流域西汉水上游,总面积1861平方公里,现有人口40万。西和历史悠久,在这里考古发现了7000多年前新石器时代人类活动遗址。西和南部的仇池山是中华文明的始祖伏羲的诞生之地。西和处在古蜀道上,为三国时期诸葛亮六处祁山和大唐诗圣杜甫入川所经。但更让这里具有民俗文化魅力的是西和七夕·乞巧-----中国女儿节。

Xihe County is a picturesque place located in southeastern part of Gansu Province. Although both Longnan and the world-renowned Mogao Grottoes are in the same province, the scenery here is starkly different from that of the desert areas in the western part of Gansu Province. With the picturesque scenery and  temperate climate, Longnan is regarded as one of the most prosperous places in Gausu. Situated on the upper reaches of Xihan River in Yangtze River Valley, Xihe, one of the counties in Longnan,  covers an area of 1,861 square kilometers and has a population of around 400,000. The county has a long history. Sites of human activities dating back to over 7,000 years in the Neolithic Age were discovered here. Chouchi Mountain in the southern part of Xihe County is the birthplace of Fu Xi, one of the primogenitors of Chinese civilization. As one stop on the Road to Shu (Sichuan nowadays) in ancient times, Xihe County witnessed the six northern expeditions launched by Zhuge Liang, one of China’s most important military strategists and statesmen during the Three Kingdoms period (220-280 AD) and the journey of Du Fu, one of the greatest poets in Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), to Sichuan.  However, what adds more charm to Xihe County is its Qiqiao Festival, which is also known as Chinese Girls’ Festival.  


乞巧是起源并流传于西和一带的秦人遗风,传承千年,长盛不衰。创建了中国第一个封建帝国----秦朝的祖先就生活在这里。《史记·秦本纪》中记载:“帝颛顼之苗裔孙曰女修。女修织,玄鸟陨卵,女修吞之,生子大业。”大业为秦人之祖。秦人始祖女修以织闻名于后世,因而秦人将“织女”命名为天汉(银河)边上一颗亮星的星名。西和妇女把这位天上善织云锦天衣的织女尊称为“巧娘娘”。 西和乞巧节是集崇拜信仰、诗歌、音乐歌舞、工艺美术、劳动技能于一体的综合性岁时节令活动。每年农历七月初一前夜拉开序幕,七月初七晚上结束,经历七天八夜。姑娘们以虔诚的心情、隆重的仪式,祈求巧娘娘赐予聪慧、灵巧、婚配如愿,生活幸福美满。整个乞巧活动分为坐巧、迎巧、祭巧、拜巧、娱巧、卜巧、送巧等多个环节。节庆中所崇拜的巧娘娘是汉文化与女子审美共同作用下塑造的理想人物,集东方女性美德的大成,凝聚了一代又一代女子的精神寄托,使她们勤劳善良。西和乞巧传承之久远、唱词之淳朴、歌舞之精彩、感情之真挚、程式之完整、人数之众多,在全国绝无仅有,被称为中国古代乞巧风俗的“活化石”,是名符其实的“女儿节”。200610月,西和县被中国民间文艺家协会命名为“中国乞巧文化之乡”,20086月,西和七夕节的乞巧活动被国务院增补为国家首批非物质文化遗产。

Qiqiao, literally meaning pleading for skills and intelligence, is a time-honored custom which originated and became popular as early as during the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC). The ancestors of people, who founded the first Chinese feudal empire Qin, used to live here. According to the Records of the Grand Historian, the granddaughter of Zhuanxu, a mythological emperor of China, was called Nüxiu. When a swallow laid an egg, Nüxiu swallowed it and gave birth to a son named Daye, who was the forefather of the people in the State of Qin. Adept in weaving, Nüxiu left a good reputation in history and the people in the State of Qin named a star in the Milky Way after Zhinü, literally meaning the Weaver Girl. The females in Xihe County called Zhinü, who was skillful in weaving, the Queen of Skills to show their respect. Qiqiao Festival in Xihe County is a comprehensive seasonal festivity incorporating worshipping, poetry, music and dancing, handicrafts and fine art, working skills, etc. Starting on the eve of the first day of the seventh month on the Chinese lunar calendar and ending on the night of the seventh day of the seventh month, the festival lasts for seven days and eight nights. With lavish ceremony, girls in the county plead sincerely with the Queen of Skills for intelligence, ingenuity, satisfying marriage and happy life. The whole event consists of a couple of sessions including waiting for the Queen of Skills, welcoming the Queen of Skills, offering sacrifices to the Queen, worshipping the Queen, amusing the Queen, divining the thought of the Queen, bidding farewell to the Queen, etc. The Queen of Skills worshipped by the girls is an idealized character created by both Han culture and the aesthetic views of females. As a character combining the fine virtues of oriental females and as the spiritual idol of females generation after generation, the Queen of Skills inspires females to be hard-working and kind-hearted. Qiqiao Festival beats all other festivals nationwide in terms of history, the excellence of singing and dancing performances, the sincerity of the participants, the completeness of the procedures, and the number of participants. It is known as the “living fossil” of ancient Chinese Qiqiao customs and is truly a “girls’ festival”. In October 2006, Xihe County was granted the title “the Hometown of Chinese Qiqiao Culture” by Chinese Folk Literature and Art Society. In June 2008, Qixi Qiqiao Festival in Xihe County was added by the State Council to the list of the first group of national intangible cultural heritage.


 “牛郎织女”传说是中国古代四大爱情神话传说之一,是与西和乞巧相联系的另一个故事。相传天帝的外孙女名叫织女,每天给负责给天空织五彩云霞,因为爱慕人间勤劳善良的牛郎,私自下凡与之结合,生有一双儿女。天帝的妻子王母发现后大怒,捉织女回天庭,牛郎用担子挑着儿女苦苦追赶,王母拔下发簪划出一道银河将两人分隔在两岸,只许每年七月七日相会一次。中国老百姓为纪念牛郎织女忠贞的爱情,全国许多地方会在七月七举行纪念活动。西和乞巧节的最后一天,就是织女牛郎相会的七夕之夜。“七夕节”被喻为中国的“情人节”。这个传说为西和的女儿节赋予了浪漫的色彩。As one of the four ancient Chinese love stories, the story about Niulang and Zhinü is another legend closely related to Qiqiao Festival in Xihe County. According to Chinese legends, one of the granddaughters of the Emperor of Heaven was called Zhinü (literally the Weaver Girl), who was responsible for weaving colorful clouds in the sky. Out of her love for Niulang, a hardworking and kind-hearted cowherd on earth, Zhinü secretly descended to the mortal world, married Niulang, and had one girl and one boy. On finding out this, the Empress of Heaven was furious and took Zhinü back to heaven. Carrying his son and daughter in two baskets, Niulang tried hard to take back his wife. Taking out her hairpin, the Empress of Heaven lined out a river to separate the two lovers, allowing them to meet each other only once a year on the seventh day of the seventh month on Chinese lunar calendar. To commemorate the profound love between Niulang and Zhinü, Chinese people nationwide launch celebrations on this day each year. The last day of Qiqiao Festival in Xihe County is exactly the day on which Niulang and Zhinü unite. That’s why this festival is also called Chinese Valentine’s Day. This legend about Niulang and Zhinü adds another air of romance to Girls’ Festival in Xihe County.

 

  坐巧 迎巧

Waiting for and Welcoming the Queen of Skills

每年农历六月,夏收完毕,在西和的乡村,女孩子们互相联络,准备乞巧。她们以自然村落为单位集合在一起,练习歌舞、准备新衣,在六月三十日夜里,迎接善织聪慧的女神(当地称之为巧娘娘)下凡,把她的纸偶像供奉在有能干主妇的家里,开始了七天八夜漫长的歌舞祭祀和丰富的才艺展示、比赛活动。

Every year in the sixth month on Chinese lunar calendar when summer harvest is over, girls in the villages of Xihe County contact each other to prepare for the event. With natural villages as the unit of gathering, the girls in Xihe County rehearse their singing and dancing performances and make new clothes. On the thirtieth day of the sixth month on Chinese lunar calendar, the girls welcome the Queen of Skills, and put her photos in the houses with capable housewives, thus starting the sacrificing and celebrating activities spanning for seven days and eight nights.

 

祭巧、唱巧

Sacrificing to and Singing for the Queen of Skills

七天八夜的时间里,家长们准许女孩们在坐巧人家过几天集体生活。女孩们在长辈妇女的带领下,早晚焚香祭拜、唱着祖辈流传下来的乞巧歌,跳着固定的舞步,祈祷巧娘娘赐给每个人智慧。

Over a span of seven days and eight nights, parents allow their daughters to live with other girls in the houses with capable housewives for a couple of days. Under the leadership of senior females, the girls burn incense every morning and evening to pay respect to the Queen, sing the songs passed down from generation to generation, do certain dancing moves, praying to the Queen for intelligence.

会巧、相互拜巧

Paying Respect to the Queen together with Other Teams

不同村庄的乞巧队会互相走访,带上给邻村巧娘娘的贡礼,和邻近村庄的女孩们一起祭拜巧娘娘,一起唱歌跳舞。同时,两个队伍之间会展开歌舞和才艺比赛,吸引来许多妈妈和小伙子前来观看。这可是相亲的好机会。

The teams of different villages bring the sacrifices they prepare for the Queen of Skills in neighboring villages and pay visit to each other. Together with the girls in other villages, they pay sacrifice to the Queen, singing and dancing. At the same time, two different teams will launch talent contests which attract many housewives and boys. This could be a great opportunity for young people to meet someone they love. 

 迎水、卜巧

Welcoming the Spring Water and Divining the Thought of the Queen

女孩子们早早出发步行到山里,提着水罐,装满甘甜的山泉水。回到村里后,把迎来的圣水供奉给女神。到了晚上,女孩子们把花瓣和巧芽丢到碗里,在灯光的投影下看是否得巧。如果得巧,碗底的投影会是一把剪刀或花朵,象征女神赐给这个女孩子会裁衣剪花,生活像花儿一样幸福。

Getting up very early in the morning, the girls walk to the mountains and fill the jugs they bring with clear and refreshing spring water. Back to the village, they sacrifice the water to the Queen of Skills. At night, the girls put flower petals and bean sprouts into bowls and examine them in the lamplight whether they have got the skills. If a girl succeeds, there will appear in the bottom of her bowl the shadow of a pair of scissors or a flower, symbolizing that the Queen bestows on her the art of needlework and a life as blossoming as flowers.

送巧

Bidding Farewell to the Queen of Skills

七月七日夜晚,女孩们怀着依依不舍的心情,来到村里的小河边,唱着忧伤的歌曲,焚化巧娘娘的纸偶像,象征把她的灵魂送回天宫,和在那里等她的牛郎相会------那可是一年里他们夫妻唯一一次幸福浪漫的银河之上的约会。


On the night of the seventh day of the seventh month on Chinese lunar calendar, with great reluctance, girls come to the river bank, sing sad songs and burn the photos of the Queen, meaning sending the soul of the Queen back to the heaven so that she could unite with Niulang who is waiting for her. This romantic date over the Milk Way is the only one date they could have in a year.

文字:巧慧女儿 数千年来,在这个秦帝国的摇篮里,传承着“女儿节”古老的习俗。在这个节日习俗的影响下,女孩们从小在家庭里、村庄里接受各种才艺的培养,仿佛真的有仙女下凡,点化了她们非凡的生活本领,让她们的艺术、生活才能和她们的容貌一样出色、美好。

The girl of Ingenuity and Intelligence

Over thousands of years, the ancient custom of Girls’ Festival has been passed down in Xihe County, place of origin for Qin Empire (221-206 BC) Under the influence of this custom, girls here receive various kinds of artistic training both at home and village levels since childhood, as if indeed there were fairies descending to the mortal world and inspiring their extraordinary skills so that they could excel in terms of not only appearance but also artistic talents and life skills.


 自由婚姻是中国古代女孩子们最向往的。在乞巧活动中,女孩们盛装集体出行,在中国漫长的封建社会中,这是中国女孩子走出阁楼院子,在公众面前展示自己才能和形象的唯一机会。即使家教很严的上户人家,也让女儿出来参加乞巧活动。在女孩们的歌舞和巧手展示中,村里的大妈和小伙子会在队伍中寻找中意的姑娘,姑娘也会在围观者中寻找中意的小伙,妈妈们主动和女孩子接触,觉着合适就托媒婆去说亲。从这个意义上说,姑娘们通过乞巧活动,争取到了一部分婚姻自由的权利。

Freedom of marriage is the dream of Chinese girls in ancient times. In the activities during Qiqiao Festival, girls appear in public in groups, which is the only chance for Chinese girls in feudal society to step out of the chamber and show themselves and their talents in public. Even families of high social status and with strict upbringing also allow their daughters to participate in Qiqiao celebrations. While girls are giving their singing and dancing performances and demonstrating their needlework, senior housewives and young boys will look for girls that catch their fancy. At the same time, girls will also look among the spectators for boys who win their hearts. The housewives will communicate with the girls who they think suitable and then ask woman matchmakers to propose matches for their sons. In this sense, through participating in Qiqiao activities the girls win some rights to freedom of marriage.  


 孝顺贤淑是生活在中国这个古老文明的国度里女性的传统美德。在西和乞巧“女儿节”文化的熏陶下,这里的女孩们自幼就接受了自立、勤劳、孝顺的品德。没出嫁时是父母身边巧慧懂事的乖女儿,出嫁了则是孝顺能干的家庭主妇,守护着一个大家庭的和睦幸福。在现代社会里,西和女性不仅承担着繁忙的家务劳动,在各自的职业岗位上,也是尽展风采,巾帼不让须眉。她们被称为中国社会的“半边天”,为社会的和谐美好奉献着她们的聪明才智。

Filial piety and virtue is the traditional moral heritage of females in China, an ancient civilization. Under the influence of Qiqiao Festival, the girls in Xihe County develop the fine virtues like independence, industry, and filial piety since childhood. Before getting married, the girls are daughters of ingenuity and thoughtfulness; and after getting married, they became housewives of filial piety and great capability, striving for the peace and happiness of their families. In modern society, females in Xihe County not only do burdensome housework but fully demonstrate their demeanor at work. They are as capable as men in most areas. Nowadays, holding up half the sky of Chinese society, women are contributing their intelligence and wisdom to the harmony and prosperity of our society.


 神奇美好浪漫的七夕·乞巧----“中国女儿节”,天上的女神每年在女孩们的盛情邀请下来到人间,“教会”女孩们生活的各种才能。事实上,在这个女儿节里,是女孩们在母亲们的指点下,学习各种手艺,这是女性智慧传承的过程,是女孩子们被关注、被培养,树立正确的生活目标的过程。这,就是“中国女儿节”---一个关于关爱培养女孩成长的伟大节日。

Each year on the occasion of Qiqiao Festival, the Chinese Girls’ Festival, the Queen of Skills in heaven will descend to the mortal world at the invitation of the girls and impart to them different life skills. As a matter of fact, this festival symbolizes not only a process where girls learn different skills under the guidance of their mothers and inherit the wisdom of females but also a process where girls receive attention and guidance from others and learn to set up appropriate goals for their life. This is exactly Chinese Girls’ Festival, a great festival that is devoted to girls and their development.   


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